Participación de ALAP en el Encuentro Anual de PAA 2009
Chair: Edith Pantelides, Conicet at Centro de Estudios de Población-CENEP
Discussant: José Miguel Guzmán, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
1. Fertility and Contraception in Latin America: Historical Trends, Recent Patterns • Suzana M. Cavenaghi, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE); José Eustáquio Diniz Alves, National School of Statistics at IBGE
2. Unintended Pregnancy in Latin America: Historical Trends, Recent Patterns • John B. Casterline, Ohio State University; Jennifer A. Mendoza, Brigham Young University
3. Evaluating the Millennium Development Goal Target on Universal Access to Reproductive Health: A View from Latin America and the Caribbean • Maren Andrea Jimenez, CELADE; Jorge Rodriguez Vignoli, CELADE
4. Recent Trends in Latin American Fertility • Luis Rosero-Bixby, Universidad de Costa Rica; Teresa Castro Martin, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC); Teresa Martin Garcia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
Unintended pregnancy in Latin America: historical trends, recent patterns
John B. Casterline and Jennifer Adams Mendoza
This paper offers an overview of levels and trends in unintended pregnancy in Latin American, based largely on national demographic surveys conducted in the past four decades. The primary focus is unwanted pregnancies (induced abortions, unwanted births), although some attention is given to mistimed births. The paper presents incidence measures (e.g. percentage of births unwanted) and fertility rates (e.g. total unwanted fertility rate). Estimates of the incidence of unwanted births are derived via the estimator recently proposed by Casterline and el-Zeini (2007), and hence the paper will present a revised picture of levels and trends in unwanted fertility, with the revised estimates generally exceeding existing published estimates. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortions are obtained from the work of other scholars (e.g. Guttmacher Institute). After providing a basic portrait of levels and trends (including comparison with other major regions of the world), the analytical portion of the paper will have three sections. First, we will examine differentials according to major population strata (urban-rural, educational attainment). Second, we will explore the associations of unintended pregnancy with (a) national population policy, and with (b) the evolution of health and family planning services. Third, we will consider the implications of current levels of unintended fertility for future trends in fertility, for example the amount of fertility decline that could be expected to follow from the reduction/elimination of unintended pregnancy.
Evaluating the Millennium Development Goal Target on Universal Access to Reproductive Health: a View from Latin America and the Caribbean
Maren Andrea Jiménez and Jorge Rodríguez Vignoli
The recent inclusion of the universal access to reproductive health as a target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) reaffirms the importance of this topic in promoting sustainable development and poverty eradication worldwide. However, several characteristics of fertility, contraceptive use and access to reproductive health services in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) challenge the effectiveness of this MDG target in the region. Improvements in reproductive health have not been sufficient to erase the historical disparities between social and economic groups in terms of access to and use of contraceptives and reproductive heath services in the region, particularly according to socio-economic status, ethnicity, and area of residence. Furthermore, while the TFR has been decreasing in all countries of LAC, tendencies in adolescent fertility rates are mixed, suggesting that the factors that influence adolescent fertility differ from those that affect fertility at later ages. Finally, although women’s partners undoubtedly influence their fertility and reproductive health, men have largely been ignored in studies of fertility in the LAC region. These stylized facts of fertility and fertility control in LAC necessitate a careful evaluation of the new MDG target and indicators and their relevance to reproductive health in the region. As such, we present an overview of the MDG target on universal access to reproductive health and its four indicators—the contraceptive prevalence rate, the adolescent birth rate, the prevalence of prenatal care use, and the unmet need for family planning—and explore the challenges and limitations these indicators present to the monitoring of reproductive health. Next, we analyze data from Demographic and Health Surveys, International Reproductive Health Surveys and other national fertility surveys in order to calculate a wider range of disaggregated indicators on reproductive health in as many countries of the region as possible, including men’s data from these surveys. We conclude that any further gains in the access to reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean will not be achieved without addressing social and economic disparities, improving adolescents’ access to reproductive health education and services, and acknowledging the role men play in reproductive choices.